Whitepapers

Featured Whitepapers

The cavities of microwave heating devices need to be carefully designed in order to ensure safe, efficient operation and homogeneous field distributions. The size, the number of modes and the resonant nature of a cavity can pose difficulties for their simulation. This paper discusses the modeling of microwave cavities and demonstrates how a system for heating test samples was optimized using electromagnetic simulation. Download Whitepaper
This paper describes several issues related to the integration of WiFi antennas into notebook computers—specifically choice of location and resulting pattern coverage, radiation efficiency, and antenna design factors relating to cost. In addition, it is intended to illustrate some of the pitfalls, successes, and performance expectations achievable with certain designs and possible solutions for improvement. Download Whitepaper
Cables are often the last component considered when designing an electronic system. However, cables are really the system’s lifeline — if a cable fails, the entire system can stop functioning. For example, if the cable system used for data transmission in a spacecraft fails, the communication between the craft and mission control could be lost. Cable performance is based on reliability, durability, and signal integrity, all of which can be compromised by electrical, mechanical, and environmental stress. The ideal cable system should be engineered to last the life of the product in any environment. Download Whitepaper
A significant number of power sensors are damaged because of users carelessness or ignorance. Knowing the proper usage and precautions for power sensors and meters would spare you inconvenience and downtime required for repair. This paper outlines seven practices for keeping your power sensors in good shape. Download Whitepaper
Wireless communication has permeated almost every electronic device, from refrigerators and electrical meters to the more commonly acknowledged mobile phones and tablet PCs. But when the time comes to add RF to a test system, it may prove significantly more challenging than adding other measurements of the past. National Instruments is trying to re-define the traditional approach with its RF test equipment based on the PXI platform. Download Whitepaper
This whitepaper from Telesystem Innovations describes the seven modes of MIMO defined in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) of the universal mobile telecommunication systems (UMTS), which is developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). Particular attention is given to the application of these modes in the different radio channels. Download Whitepaper
This White Paper provides a general overview of different military and commercial radar systems. It gives an overview on radar systems and important measurements on them. It also covers some typical measurements on such systems and their components. Download Whitepaper
This application note describes a workspace that features several load pull and DC I-V simulations of a Cree Field-Effect Transistor (FET). The workspace may be used to see what performance (e.g., output power, gain and power-added efficiency (PAE)) could be obtained, and what source and load impedances should be used to attain a desired level of performance (or make trade-offs). Download Whitepaper
There is a lot of interest in the application of GaN HEMT power devices in high reliability and space power supplies, and given their excellent performance characteristics (ultra-high speed switching times, low gate charge and low ON resistance) these devices are the natural technology progression in relation to conventional silicon MOSFET devices. But since this is a new technology there are some misconceptions regarding their robustness and reliability general acceptance of these deicves in high reliability and space applications has been coming slow. Download Whitepaper
In this paper a high-efficiency, small-size GaN Doherty amplifier for LTE micro-cell base station and active antenna systems base station application is presented. It is implemented with a TriQuint Semiconductor wideband discrete GaN RF power transistor, the T1G6001528-Q3. Download Whitepaper
This application note will provide you with a brief review of the four factors that in?uence the quality of your power measurements. Before you select a power meter and its associated sensors, make sure that you have taken the following four steps into consideration, each of which can in?uence the accuracy, economy, and technical match to your application. Download Whitepaper
A typical smartphone handset can contain numerous different RF systems, including multi-band cellular antennas, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC and navigation systems such as GPS and GLONASS. All these systems need to be able to coexist without causing cosite interference. This application note shows how CST STUDIO SUITE® and Delcross EMIT can be used to investigate interference between antennas on a smartphone, and how potential mitigation strategies can be investigated using simulation. Download Whitepaper
One of the most common measuring tasks in RF Engineering involves analysis of circuits (Networks). A network analyzer is an instrument that is designed to handle this job with great precision and efficiency. This white paper is a primer on the fundamentals of Vector Network analysis. It is a well written easy to understand primer that starts off with the basics and then goes on to cover design, measurements and calibration. Download Whitepaper
This whitepaper defines the characteristic properties of various elastomers used in the manufacture of microwave absorbing products. For example, Nitriles show excellent resistance to petroleum based fuel and oil products so are superior to Silicone in aerospace and flight line environments. For high temperature applications or where dilute acids may be encountered, a Viton based absorber may be the best option. Download Whitepaper
This application note will review the basic concepts of MIMO with specific application to spatial multiplexing in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE. It will show measurements of channel coefficients and associated condition numbers as they relate to the SNR at the LTE receiver. How antenna and channel correlation affects system performance will also be discussed, along with recommendations for the best measurement tools to use when developing LTE products and systems. Download Whitepaper