Evaluating X-parameter*, P2D and S2D Models for Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices

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  • Author: Jiang Liu and Hugo Morales, Lawrence P. Dunleavy, Loren Betts
Power amplifiers (PAs) play an important role in RF and microwave communication systems. To successfully design such systems, accurate modeling of the PA using circuit-level or behavioral models is critical. For system simulation, behavioral models are preferable. One simple behavioral model that can be used for the PA is small-signal S-parameters. They can be used to predict small-signal gain and typical linear budget analysis, but they do not provide complete information on the device-under-test (DUT), such as inherent nonlinear behavior. To characterize the nonlinear transfer between the PA input and output, behavioral models are often supplemented with nonlinear mathematical expressions.