Measurement Uncertainties for Vector Network Analysis

To quantify uncertainties for network analyzer measurements, the influence of the entire system (network analyzer plus test setup and DUT) has to be taken into account. Usually, the overall uncertainty of the complete measurement setup is determined with the aid of a verification kit, containing highly accurate verification standards. Of course, the verification standards need to have the same connector type as the DUT. If such verification standards are not available, the overall error has to be estimated.