OSCILLATORS

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  • Author: Andrew Dearn

The designers of monolithic or integrated oscillators usually have the available process dictated to them by overall system requirements such as frequency of operation or cost. Furthermore the use of high quality resonators such as crystals or ceramic resonators are not entirely compatible with the integration process. Thus the designer loses degrees of freedom in the choice of active device and tank circuits. However, for a given process the advantages for the oscillator designer include the availability of a wide range of active device sizes, and the fact that lumped element components such as R's, L's and C's are not limited to E12/E24 standard values.   

This tutorial concentrates on the design techniques for a monolithic GaAs MESFET fixed frequency oscillator at 9.35 GHz, for an X-band Transponder application. The techniques can equally be applied to RF bipolar, CMOS or BiCMOS processes in the MHz region.