Residual Errors Determination for Vector Network Analyzers at a Low Resolution in the Time Domain

A method is introduced for determination of a VNA’s calibration residual errors for measurement of the reflection coefficient. The proposed method shows particular advantages when the use of a long verification line is impractical (e.g. at the wafer-level), or for measurements at low frequency ranges or similar cases when the resolution of conventional time domain methods is low. Experimental studies were conducted for two frequency ranges and in coaxial and on-wafer measurement environment. The proposed algorithm is a useful for a wide range of practical applications especially for measuring uncertainty estimation of cost-effective vector network analyzers. (Presented at the 82nd Annual IEEE ARFTG Conference).