Microstrip Conductor Loss Models for Electromagnetic Analysis

This paper describes and rigorously validates single- and multiple-layer models of microstrip conductor loss appropriate for high-accuracy application in electromagnetic analysis software. The models are validated by comparison with measurement and by comparison with converged results. It is shown that in some cases an extremely small cell size is needed in order to achieve convergence. Several effects that make a significant contribution to loss and are not modeled by the classic square root of frequency loss model are investigated including dispersion and current on the side of transmission lines. Finally, the counterintuitive result that there is an optimum metal thickness for minimum planar conductor loss is explored.