What Makes a Good Vector Network Analyzer?

Everyone knows that a good VNA should have both excellent hardware performance and an easy to use software interface with useful post -processing capabilities. But there are numerous VNAs in the market with different performance levels; some of them are economy grade, and others are truly laboratory test grade. So what separates the two? This application note will focus the particular components and design aspects that maximize the performance of a VNA, in part by comparing modern VNAs with designs of the last century.