Russian Gyrotrons: Achievements and Trends
Alexander G. Litvak; Gregory G. Denisov; Mikhail Y. Glyavin
The last decade has contributed to the rapid progress in the gyrotron development. Megawatt-class, continuous wave gyrotrons are employed as high-power millimeter (mm)-wave sources for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive in the tokamaks and stellarators. The progress in gyrotron development pushes ECH from a minor to a major heating method. Also gyrotron based technological complexes successfully applied in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, for microwave ceramic sintering and diamond disk production. The paper describes the main features of high frequency gyrotrons. Some data about pulsed and CW tubes, working in the terahertz frequency range, are given.
These gyrotrons operate (in some specific combinations) at very low voltage and beam current, demonstrate an extremely narrow frequency spectrum or wide frequency tuning. Although in comparison with the classical microwave tubes the gyrotrons are characterized by greater volume and weight due to the presence of bulky parts (such as superconducting magnets and massive collectors where the energy of the spent electron beam is dissipated) they can easily be embedded in a sophisticated laboratory equipment (e.g., spectrometers, technological systems, etc.). All these advantageous features have opened the road to many novel and prospective applications of gyrotrons.
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