Design of a Complete RF Downconverter Module for Test Equipment

RF/microwave modules, often referred to as “hybrids,” integrate functional blocks used to transmit and/or receive radio signals. These hybrid circuits combine different technologies, including monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs)/RFICs, discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), and passive devices attached to substrates such as alumina or FR4, which contain circuit traces and distributed components, all within a single housing or enclosure. By integrating diverse technologies, RF modules address the challenge of developing cost-effective radio circuitry for low- to medium-volume production, commonly used in test and measurement equipment and aerospace/defense applications.

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