VNA Time Domain Processing

A Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measures devices by emitting a series of frequencies and charting how much of the signal either reflects or passes through a device in each direction. Specifically, the reflection from the input of a Device Under Test (DUT) from port 1 is the S parameter S11. The signal passing through from input to output is labeled S21. If the VNA switches the stimulus signal to Port 2, the signal reflected from the output of the DUT is labeled S22 and the signal passing backward through the DUT is labeled S12.

A tabulation of these four measurements over a range of frequencies is called a Touchstone file and with it, a DUT may be simulated in a linear simulation program. The four S-parameters are sufficient to fully characterize any linear two-port device.

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