Time Domain Measurements Using Vector Network Analyzer ZNA
R&S Vector Network Analyzers of ZNA and ZNB family are able to measure magnitude and phase of complex S-parameters of a device under test (DUT) in the frequency domain. By means of the inverse Fourier transform the measurement results can be transformed to the time domain. Thus, the impulse or step response of the DUT is obtained, which gives an especially clear form of representation of its characteristics. For instance, faults in cables can thus be directly localized. Moreover, special time domain filters, so-called gates, are used to suppress unwanted signal components such as multireflections. The measured data "gated" in the time domain are then transformed back to the frequency domain and an Sparameter representation without the unwanted signal components is obtained as a function of frequency. As usual, other complex or scalar parameters such as impedance or attenuation can then be calculated and displayed.
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